FRIEDRICH - LIST - SCHULE ULM
Friedrich List – patron saint of our school – is the best known and most popular German economist, one of the few whose name can be found in every textbook.
Born in Reutlingen in the year of the French Revolution in 1789, he was usually celebrated as a “national economist” or as a “champion of German unity”. He regarded himself as a failed existence, because only then is his suicide in 1846 to understand. Lack of recognition and material worries were the causes of suicide. Nevertheless, “Germany’s Friedrich List” is on his grave plate in Kufstein – but this Germany wanted to hear little from him in his lifetime.
Württemberg intercepted him, the Hohenasperg – the “wart in the face of Wiirttemberg”, the “Democrats hunchback” – was also his fate: “Because of insulting the royal government,” he was jailed there from July 1824 to January 1825; then he was pardoned under the condition of leaving the country.
List emigrated with his family to the land of freedom, the United States. The country is rid of him – and yet many schools across the country are named after him, especially those with economic profile, there is hardly a larger city that would not have named a street, a square or a hall after him, on stamps became his and, as early as 1863, when the List-Monument was inaugurated on the station forecourt in Reutlingen, this honor almost turned into a folk festival.
Perhaps the departure from the narrow Wiirttemberg conditions is the key to later national prestige and European validity. List might have been wiped out in the modest, solid, yet petty states of the country. As happy as he was, he might have confused the edge of Wiirttemberg with the horizon of the world and worked his way through the necessary “file smearing” (F. Freiligrath).
So he saw the world, saw above all the grandiose entrepreneurial spirit that inspired the United States, and so he met men, personalities, by which the local official souls faded and to which Friedrich List congenially connected felt – Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and James Monroe , His political commitment impressed him immensely and convinced him of the efficiency of the democratic system.
America was the model of his life throughout his life – but his love belonged to the German fatherland: Although he became an American citizen but he urged home – he returned as American Consul for Baden in 1832; In 1834 President Jackson appointed him consul for the city of Leipzig. For List now began the actual life struggle. In the United States he was more or less successful as a farmer, editor, entrepreneur, railway builder, etc., here in Germany his advice was sought after, because no one knew more about railway construction at that time, but he was never hired.
Without his help, the German railway industry is unimaginable, very important is that he always saw the economic value. In this sense, his statement is to be understood: “The most solid work is … not the best, but the one which immediately brings the most percent.” He admitted, this success was denied – a hoped job as a railway director of the railway line Dresden-Leipzig smashed quickly Although the construction of the track is largely due to its initiative and manpower.
Friedrich List is considered one of the intellectual pioneers of the German Customs Union of 1833/34, a customs union of the German states, which promoted German unity in the economic field and which accelerated the upswing of German industry. List was not involved in the formation of the Zollverein, but since 1819 he had advertised for such a merger journalistic. His main writing – “The National System of Political Economy” (1841) – is an economics document that discussed and criticized the then popular economic theories, especially the free trade theory of Adam Smith. He saw that in Germany, industry had yet to develop before it could face the international competition – consequently, he advised protective tariffs.
Today List’s theories are discussed in two ways: first, his ideas of Germany’s national unification are transferred to the difficulties of the present to create European unity. Furthermore, it is believed that many of the developmental disasters in the “Third World” could have been avoided if one had heeded the knowledge of Lists that only on the basis of well-functioning agriculture can be developed at all industry and commerce. The room Ulm is the L